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RUBRIC

RUBRIC

 

Language
component

Excellent to Very Good  

 Good to Average

Fair to Poor

Very Poor

Scoring Range:

30-27

26-22

21-17

16-13

 

C
O
N
T
E
N
T

 

 

 

Suits audience= an exceptionally strong sense of audience; the writer seems to be aware of the reader and of how to communicate the message most effectively.
One idea expressed. Supporting, relevant, carefully selected details= when appropriate, use of resources provides strong, accurate, credible support.
Creative, an easily identifiable purpose

 A sense of audience
=the writer seems to be aware of the reader, but has not consistently employed an appropriate voice.
A loosely
expressed idea,
Some
specific develop-
ment, mostly relevant to topic= content and selected details that are relevant, but perhaps not consistently well-chosen for audience and purpose.     

A limited sense of audience= the writer's awareness of the reader is unclear.
Non-specific
statement and incomplete development,
Insufficient details= little relevance, minimal development of main idea;, irrelevant details that clutter the text,

 

A lack of audience awareness =there is little or no sense of "writing to be read. No clear development =too short to demonstrate the development of an idea,
Not related details
Lack of focus,  

Scoring Range:

20-18

17-14

13-10

9-7

 

O
R
G
A
N
I
Z
A
T
I
O
N

 

Effective lead/thesis statement=effective, perhaps creative, sequencing; the organizational structure fits the topic, and the writing is easy to follow, a strong, inviting beginning that draws the reader in      A strong, satisfying sense of resolution or closure.            Smooth, effective transitions among all elements =(sentences, paragraphs, ideas). logical order (time-space-importance) effective connecting/transitional words, conclusion

Adequate lead/ thesis statement= effective sequencing; the organizational structure fits the topic an inviting beginning that draws the reader in                              A satisfying sense of resolution or closure,
Some connecting/
transitional words= logical, but incomplete order,

Weak  lead, thesis statement= attempts at sequencing, but the order or the relationship among ideas may occasionally be unclear, a recognizable beginning that may not be particularly inviting;         Weak sense of resolution and conclusion          Some connecting/ transitional words= not all placed appropriately
 

Weak or no lead/ thesis statement=  a missing or extremely undeveloped beginning, body, and/or ending,some attempts at sequencing, but the order of the relationship among ideas is frequently unclear                  A lack of transitions, or when present, ineffective or overused transitions= a lack of an effective organizational structure. details that seem to be randomly placed, leaving the reader frequently  confused

ScoringRange:

20-18

17-14

13-10

9-7

 

 

 

V
O
C
A
B
U
L
A
R
Y

 

 

Effective word use=Correct word forms,
accurate, strong, specific words; powerful words, fresh, original expression, ordinary words used in an unusual way, meaning clear, effective word choice and description/ figurative language

Mostly effective word use=Mostly correct word forms,( words that are accurate for the most part, although misused words may occasionally appear) meaning understandable, adequate word choice, fresh, vivid expression; ordinary words used in an unusual way, some  description/ figurative language

Some effective word use=Many incorrect word forms, meaning obscure, words that work but do not particularly energize the writing, attempts at colorful language that may sometimes seem overdone, some variety in word choice, rare experiments with language; however, the writing may have some fine moments and generally avoids cliches.  little description/ figurative language,

Limited word choice, words that work, but that rarely capture the reader's interest,little or no meaning, expression that seems mundane and general, reliance on cliches and overused expressions; generic, basic

ScoringRange:

25-22

21-18

17-11

10-5

 

L
A
N
G
U
A
G
E

U
S
E

 

Sentence variety= extensive variation in sentence structure, length and beginnings that add interest to the text.             sentence structure= that enhances meaning by drawing attention to key ideas or reinforcing relationships among ideas,             complete sentences= strong control over sentence structure; fragments, if used at all, work well. correct verb tenses,               correct word order,            agreement

Sentence variety= variation in sentence structure, length and beginnings that add interest to the text,               Sentence structure= Most of the sentences are carefully crafted, with strong and varied structure that makes expressive oral reading easy and enjoyable.
Mostly complete sentences= control over sentence structure; fragments, if used at all, work well.
Several errors in verb tense,
Few mistakes in word order, agreement, articles, negatives, run-ons 

Sentence variety= some variety in sentence structure, length, and beginnings
Sentence structure = strong control over simple sentence structures, but variable control over more complex sentences; fragments, if present, are usually effective
Some incomplete sentences,    Some inconsistent verb tense,
Some mistake in word order, agreement, articles, negatives,
 run-ons.

Sentence variety= some variety in sentence structure, length, and beginnings, although the writer falls into repetitive sentence patterns Sentence structures= good control over simple sentence structures, but little control over more complex sentences; fragments, if present, may not be effective.
Incomplete sentences=
largely phrases, Random verb tense, word order, agreement, articles, negatives,

Scoring
Range:

5

4

3

2

M
E
C
H
A
N
I
C
S

Mastery of spelling, capitalization, and punctuation, strong control of conventions; manipulation of conventions may occur for stylistic effect.. strong effective use of punctuation that guides the reader through the text. correct spelling, even of more difficult words. skill in using a wide range of conventions in a sufficiently long and complex piece. little need for editing. 

Occasional errors in spelling, capitalization, and use of commas, periods, and apostrophes, effective use of punctuation that guides the reader through the text. Mostly correct spelling, even of more difficult words. little need for editing

Frequent errors in spelling, capitalization, and use of commas, periods, and apostrophes, correct end-of-sentence punctuation; internal punctuation my sometimes be incorrect,

Dominated by errors in spelling, capitalization, and punctuation, end-of-sentence punctuation that is usually correct; however, internal punctuation contains frequent errors.  spelling errors that distract the reader; misspelling of common words occurs. paragraphs that sometimes run together or begin at ineffective places. capitalization errors. errors in grammar and usage that do not block meaning but do distract the reader. significant need for editing.

 

                                                  FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

1-Why write? Is it a lifetime skill?
 

‘Writing, like life itself, is a voyage of discovery’
                                                                Henry Miller


2-Why evaluate? What is the purpose of evaluation?

 


Evaluating writing progress is one of the steps of writing process. To shape and improve students writing progresses, evaluation part is necessary. So students can develop the ability of lifelong learning. Additionally, teachers also can find possibilities to guide students recognizing, practicing and employing the principles of writing.


3-What is rubric?

  • “Descriptive scoring schemes that are developed by teachers or other evaluators to guide the analysis of the products or process of students’ efforts” (Moskal, 2000 p. 22).
  • “rubrics refer to scoring guides consisting of specific pre-established performance criteria, used in evaluating student work on performance assessment” (Mertler, 2001 p. 189)

This marking criteria is used at first by Texas A&M University and its English Language Institute in English Proficiency test which is required of all new international students admitted to the university. Then the technique is developed more and more by English Department and English Language Institute. Then it is again tested for approximately 120 ESL students. At the end of lots of processes, the present criteria are formed with the exception of a few revisions in wording and arrangements in. So it is still used by the most of the well known universities as marking criteria in USA.

4-Why use rubric?

 


To evaluate a writing text in an extended and objective way, we need to use good marking criteria such as rubrics. They are guidelines for students regarding teacher expectations. Also by the help of rubrics,’ teachers can develop the quality of their direct instruction by providing focus, emphasis, and attention to particular details as a model for students’(Jacobs et.al. 1981 p.49) Many researchers believe that rubrics develop students’ final products and so increase their learning capacity. Teachers know clearly what makes a good final product. Besides, when students get their feedbacks criteria before handing their works, they understand how they will be evaluated and therefore can prepare accordingly. Thus, they can improve the quality of their products and increase their knowledge by using rubrics as a tool to develop their abilities.

 


5-What are the components of the ESL composition profile?


The components of the ESL composition profile are content, organization, vocabulary, language use and mechanics.


6-Why use these components (content, organization, vocabulary, language use and mechanics) to evaluate a test?

To remind teachers and students of essential concepts and principals in composition, criteria components are used. ‘Thus, writers can easily succeed at composing or synthesizing the main elements of writing into a connected, coherent, effective piece of written discourse (p.67).


7-What is the reliability of this rubric?


‘Reliability refers to the extent to which a test yields consistent results, i.e., are the test scores precise, stable, dependable?’(p.68). Profile suggests “for maximum reader reliability, each composition should be read by at least three readers working independently” (p. 69).


8-What is the standard error of measurement?


To interpret test scores, the standard error of measurement is an important and useful statistic. Standard error of measurement in the test scores is closely related to the reliability of the test.’ The more reliable test, the smaller the degree of error in the test score and the more confident we can be that the score is near an individual’s true score’(p.70) In ESL rubric the standard error of measurement rate is reported between 4.43 and 6.26 for two, three or four readers.

 

9-What is the validity of this rubric?


‘Test validity refers to how well a test measures what it is intended to measure’(p.73) The validity-related matters for English Composition Profile were reported by Jacobs et al. (1981) as follows:
In terms of face validity and content validity, the Profile looks like measure of writing ability since it contains the criteria that have been emphasized by the educators as the elements of good writing. So it has face validity. The Profile also seems to be valid in content because it evaluates writers’ performance on writing tasks generally required in the classroom (Jacobs et al., 1981).
 To find out whether the Profile is concurrently valid or not, compositions test scores were correlated with the scores from the TOEFL and Michigan Test Battery. The validity coefficients for the Profile were reported as ranging from .46 to .70. The Profile most strongly correlated with the Vocabulary and Grammar scores of Michigan Test Battery and with the structural writing (.62) scores on the TOEFL (Jacobs et al., 1981).
To determine the construct validity of the Profile, it was used as a pre-test and as a post-test for a composition class in the English Language Institute. The results indicated that there was a statistically significant average increase in the Profile scores from pre-test to post-test. (t=12.04, df =109, p<0.5).


10- Is this rubric a sufficient and useful marking criteria for KTU students?


We, as KTU Writing Coordination, believe that ESL rubric is one of the best developed and detailed marking criteria for evaluation step and therefore it can answer the students and the instructors’ needs in an extended way. Also, as we mentioned in the previous questions, ESL rubric’s validity and reliability are measured in many aspects and it is stated that it is one of the best evaluation techniques.  That’s why we prefer using these marking criteria in our writing classes.


References
1-Jane B. Hughey, Deanna R. Wormuth, V.Faye Hartfiel, Holly L. Jacobs ‘Teaching ESL Composition-Principles and Techniques’,(Rowley, Massachusetts: Newbury House Publishers Inc. 1983)
2-Jane B. Hughey, Deanna R. Wormuth, V.Faye Hartfiel, Holly L. Jacobs ‘Testing ESL Composition-A Practical Approach’(Rowley, London, Tokyo: Newbury House Publishers, Inc. 1981)
3. Barbara Moskal.  (2000, March, 12). Scoring rubrics: What, when and how? Practical Assessment, Research, & Evaluation, 7 (3). Retrieved March 12, 2005 from http://pareonline.net/getvn.asp?V=7&n=3
4. Mertler, C. A. (2001, July 7). Designing scoring rubrics for your classroom. Practical Assessment, Research, & Evaluation, 7 (5).  Retrieved July 7, 2006, from http://pareonline. net/getvn.asp?V=7&n=25

 
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